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How Does an Electric Motor Work

Views:5     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2021-04-30      Origin:Site

Because of the complexity of the topic, the following is a simplified explanation of how a four-pole, three-phase AC induction motor works in a car. It starts with the battery in the car that is connected to the Electric Motor. Electrical energy is supplied to the stator via the car’s battery. The coils within the stator (made from the conducting wire) are arranged on opposite sides of the stator core and act as magnets, in a way. Therefore, when the electrical energy from the car battery is supplied to the motor, the coils create rotating, magnetic fields that pull the conducting rods on the outside of the rotor along behind it. The spinning rotor is what creates the mechanical energy needed to turn the gears of the car, which, in turn, rotate the tires. Now in a typical car, i.e., non-electric, there is both an engine and an alternator. The battery powers the engine, which powers the gears and wheels. The rotation of the wheels is what then powers the alternator in the car and the alternator recharges the battery. This is why you are told to drive your car around for a period after being jumped: the battery needs to be recharged in order to function appropriately. There is no alternator in an electric car.

So, how does the battery recharge then? While there is no separate alternator, the motor in an electric car acts as both motor and alternator.


This is due to the alternating nature of the AC signal that allows the voltage to be easily stepped up or stepped down to different values.That’s one of the reasons why electric cars are so unique.

As referenced above, the battery starts the motor, which supplies energy to the gears, which rotates the tires. This process happens when your foot is on the accelerator — the rotor is pulled along by the rotating magnetic field, requiring more torque. But what happens when you let off of the accelerator? When your foot comes off the accelerator the rotating magnetic field stops and the rotor starts spinning faster (as opposed to being pulled along by the magnetic field). When the rotor spins faster than the rotating magnetic field in the stator, this action recharges the battery, acting as an alternator.


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